Der zweite Teil der Computer-Geschichtsdokumentation ist auch schon online.
(Teil 1: The Machine that changed the World, Teil 2: Inventing the Future, Teil 3: The Paperback Computer, Teil 4: The Thinking Machine, Teil 5: The World at Your Fingertips)
In the '50s, vacuum tubes were an essential component of the electronics industry, located in every computer, radio, and television. Transistors meant that far more complex computers could be designed, but couldn't be built because wiring them together was a logistical nightmare. The "tyranny of numbers" was solved in 1959 with the first working integrated circuit, developed and introduced independently by both Texas Instruments and Fairchild. But ICs were virtually ignored until adopted by NASA and the military for use in lunar landers, guided missiles, and jets. Electronics manufacturers soon realized the ability to mass-produce ICs. Within a decade, ICs cost pennies to produce while becoming a thousand times more powerful. The result was the birth of the Silicon Valley and a reborn electronics industry.